Log in to a linux machine and open a new terminal (right click and look for Open Terminal).
It is always good to know how to exit a program, click “Exit” in the top grey bar in NMAP2 to quit.
NEVER exit N-AWIPS programs/windows by using the “X” box in the upper right corner
this will leave processes running and will eventually crash the machine (usually at 3am on the day a big project is due).
If you are working remotely (on a machine outside of HAMP 4247), bring up a web browser and enter the following URL
Log in with your career account. Then type:
where NN is a number between 1 and 20. log in with your career account credentials.
We can customize the variables that we plot in nmap2. Before we can do that, we need to setup some files that you will edit to produce customized plots.
This needs to be done once, not every time that you run nmap2.
List the files (ls $HOME/restore/) to make sure that you have files called “my_restore_01, my_restore_02”, etc.
GEMPAK is a software package that includes several programs useful for decoding, plotting, and displaying meteorological data. The N-AWIPS programs that we have been using are based upon the GEMPAK engine. Certain GEMPAK programs will work only with specific types of data or will perform only specific tasks. The first two letters of a GEMPAK program's name correspond with these data types or tasks:
To begin using any of the GEMPAK programs, make sure that you have sourced the proper setup.csh.
Then, simply type the name of the program at a linux/unix prompt. All of the GEMPAK programs work similarly through the use of parameter lists. Once in one of the GEMPAK programs, it is useful to get a listing of all of the parameters and their settings by typing “l” (lowercase L, for 'list') followed by ENTER. To change a parameter, just use the following syntax:
GEMPAK has a useful help library for each parameter and each program. This library can be accessed with the phelp or help commands. (phelp displays the help one page at a time). As an example, if you were interested in the MAP parameter, you would type phelp map, while the command phelp sfmap would provide information and examples illustrating the use of the sfmap program. You must be within a GEMPAK program to use these commands.
Once you have changed all the parameters to your liking, type r for run from the prompt to create your plot. To quit, type ex (or exit).
If you need more information regarding parameters, use the phelp command, ask your instructor, or visit the GEMPAK documentation online at the following URL
Remember that you must use gpend to close GEMPAK windows. (“gpend is your friend”) NEVER click on the corner of an open GEMPAK window to close it. You will leave behind ghost GEMPAK processes that will continue to run, slowing down and eventually crashing your machine! You must also use gpend before printing newly created PostScript files.
We will be using the program gdplot2, at the linux command line type:
The program gdplot2 plots scalar and or vector variables (if they are available in or derivable from a GEMPAK file) such as wind, temperature, height, sea level pressure, etc. In addition, you can plot combinations of the available variables such as vorticity, temperature advection, thickness, and divergence. Here is a listing of some important GEMPAK parameters:
it is strongly recommended that you read up on the gparm parameter (phelp gparm) to get an idea of the variety of parameters that can be plotted using GEMPAK. Change the following parameters as outlined below. Once you have set a parameter, it will remain the same for future plots, unless you specifically change it.
Once you have changed these parameters, type r and press <Enter>.
Now let’s plot the temperature advection by the full wind. Change:
This should plot the temperature advection term in units of K/s * 104. In other words, the 2 contour represents temperature advection of 2 x 10-4 K/s. If we are interested in units of K/day we need to multiply these numbers by the factor of 86400 s/day. To do this, we’ll combine two functions at the same time, multiplication and advection. Change:
and run. (also try: type=cf to get a color fill) The “mul” function multiplies two fields, here the second “field” is a constant number = 86400 s/day.
Then, run the GEMPAK program like you normally do by typing run and pressing ENTER. You will not see a window display on your screen as you do when the device is set to xw. Rather, the output is being stored to a postscript file named in the device statement. After the GEMPAK program has created the file, exit the program, then type gpend. You can also try to write your output to a gif file, use the following syntax:
GIF files are easy to insert into documents, such as formal lab reports or webpages.
Examine the my_restore_01 file:
you will be modifying this (or any of the other files) to create your own unique plots.
Think about: “What do I want to display?” These could be color-filled plots of diagnostic quantities such as pressure advection. You’ll need to determine which variables are needed in order to compute the diagnostic field that you are interested in.
Use the text editor (emacs) to modify/edit a “my_restore” file in your $HOME/restore directory. Modify the GEMPAK variables so that they are set to the parameter settings that are found in the restore files you created in the previous step. The format of restore files is similar to how you type in and modify variables inside a GEMPAK program, except the “=” sign is not included. Many of the variables will not need to be modified in the “my_restore” file. For example, in your “my_restore” file, do not modify the GDFILE or GDATTIM variables (NMAP2 doesn’t need GDFILE, and leave GDATTIM set to “fall” so NMAP2 can plot all of the forecast times).
In programming, one of the best ways to learn how to do something new is to modify something that currently exists. All of the regular NMAP2 restore files are sitting in the $NMAP_RESTORE directory. You are welcome to look at those and see how other people have programmed restore files to plot the things that we currently have in NMAP2.
Let's begin by looking further into the my_restore_01 file. Some of the key parameters are listed below:
Let’s change the GDPFUN line to modify the “tmpk” to “tmpc”. Save your my_restore_01 file, and reload the gridded data to see the effect of your change. You need to modify the “time line” in the data source window to get nmap2 to use the modified restore file. “tmpk” is temperature in Kelvin, “tmpc” is temperature in Celsius, so you’ve changed the units of the plotted temperature.
Now let’s have nmap2 do the work by calculating (and plotting) the temperature advection for us. The advection function is “adv(SCALAR,WIND)” where SCALAR could be temperature, vorticity, moisture and WIND is a wind variable which could be the geostrophic wind, thermal wind, or the regular wind. Try changing the following lines:
Note that the exclamation point separates variables and actions related to those variables. So, the contour interval for different variables will correspond to the same order that it is listed between “!” in the GDPFUN list.
This should color-fill the temperature advection in units of K/s * 10-5
Setting SCALE to 5 multiplies the grid by 105 before plotting
If we are interested in units of K/day we need to multiply these numbers by the factor of 86400 s/day. To do this, we’ll combine two functions at the same time, multiplication (mul) and advection (adv). Change:
At this point, it is a simple matter of examining the color fill and color bar to find numerical values for temperature advection